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The Frontier States of Western Yorubaland: State Formation and Political Growth in an Ethnic Frontier Zone

Biodun Adediran, 1994

First lines

In West Africa, as elsewhere in the world, ethnic boundaries are not easy to fix. Constant population expansion and the resultant socio-cultural contacts among different ethnic groups often frustrate such attempts; and it becomes difficult to decide where one ethnic group begins and where another ends. This problem is particularly difficult in a ‘frontier zone’ where two or more ethnic groups overlap and where inter-ethnic contacts over a fairly long time have blurred the ethnic differences among them.

Full text available online on OpenEditions Books: http://books.openedition.org/ifra/375

Urban Violence in Africa : Pilot Studies (South Africa, Côte-d’Ivoire, Nigeria)

Eghosa E. Osaghae, Ismaila Touré, N’Guessan Kouamé, Isaac Olawale Albert and Jinmi Adisa. 1994

First words

This study has moderate objectives. It uses existing perspectives on violence in general, as a background for focusing on violence in the urban context. The major thesis is that towns and cities, as the hubs of political, economic and social processes, as well as social change, provide the locale for analysing the usually complex and interrelated forms of violence. The structural and spatial inequalities often found in towns, and the growth of slums and un-and underemployed sub-cultures, provide the milieu for the proliferation of violence, particularly against the existence of relatively high levels of opulence. By their very nature therefore, cities provide an enabling environment for violence, arising from individual and mass frustration caused by relative deprivation, political repression, and systemic injustice. For these reasons, the urban framework of revolution has been emphasized by many scholars, but this is only one part of the totality of violence. The urban ...

Full text available online on OpenEditions Books: http://books.openedition.org/ifra/771

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